Mr Goldfish has provided audio for this post:
My general plan in writing these blog posts was that I would conclude with Acceptance on 26th August, the 20th anniversary of my becoming ill. I suppose it is fitting that the last several months have been pretty rough and things didn't go according to plan.
The forth stage in the Kubler-Ross model of grief is usually described as depression, but I'm going to talk about sadness. Depression and extreme sadness are different but despite many attempts to draw one, there's no magical dividing line between the two. Both can cause physical pain and profound exhaustion, both can damage one's physical health, quite apart from the ways they effect behaviour. Either one can lead into the other.
However, in general:
- Depression may feature a great mix of negative emotions including extreme sadness but also raging anger, prolonged anxiety, panic or profound numbness. Extreme sadness is more often mixed with more positive emotions, like nostalgia, gratitude and love - sadness can be bittersweet, depression not so much.
- Depressive reasoning tends to lead to more extreme, pessimistic and strongly-held conclusions. A non-depressed sad person may feel despair that life has irrevocably changed, and wonder how on Earth they will be able to cope. A depressed person may feel certain that life is and will remain unbearable and they will not be able to cope.
- Depression is more likely to be unrelenting. A common experience when someone first realises they're depressed is that they're in a situation where they would usually expect to feel much better - in the company of good friends, doing something they love etc., and they still feel completely flat or on the verge of tears. Sad people inevitably feel out of place in situations where others are happy and celebrating, but it may be more possible to temporarily lift one's spirits. In the same way, a sad person may feel that others understand and support them, while a depressed person may feel very extremely alone - feeling either like a burden to their loved ones, or suspicious that others don't truly know or like them.
Although it is impossible to draw a neat line, it is important to consider the differences; sadness can be horrible but depression can be dangerous. Because the lives of people with chronic illness - whether physical, mental or a bit of both - are often difficult, it is easy for both us and other people to mistake depressive symptoms as a normal response to our primary condition or even part of that illness. A bit of a tangent, but an important point.
The Kubler-Ross model is an imperfect model of what happens to everyone coming to terms with loss. Some people skip stages, or experience these stages in a different order and of course, some losses, like those experienced during chronic illness, are ongoing - we sometimes return to stages of denial, anger or bargaining when the loss deepens or we're somehow reminded of loss we thought we'd gotten over.
Sadness is the black hole that the psyche holds out against if at all possible. Whether consciously or not, we tend to go to considerable lengths to avoid the sadness. Unlike the stages before it, sadness gives you nothing to do; denial, anger and bargaining each push a person towards some kind of strategy, whether carrying on as if nothing has happened, raging against the situation or negotiating a reprieve. Sadness acknowledges the finality of loss - even if an illness might improve, there's a certain kind of life which will never now be lived. Sadness is hopelessness and helplessness and as I've mentioned before, the mind will perform all kinds of scary tricks rather that to consider itself helpless. To return briefly to my tangent about depression, I have experienced depression on two occasions and to be honest, neither of these were very heavy on sadness; I was scared and angry (mostly at myself). I was scared of feeling the sadness I could see coming and that fear made me want to die.
However, eventually, sadness is an almost inevitable feature of loss. It is deeply unpleasant, of course, but it is natural and often necessary. While we live in a culture which will, at least sometimes, tell you that anger is useful (and it sometimes is), it is rare to hear that sadness is sometimes absolutely vital in order to cope with loss. We expect people to be sad, of course, but we expect that to happen in an orderly culturally-appropriate manner - bereaved people can find themselves subject to disapproval for grieving either too long or not long enough (or, as is perhaps most common, fluctuating in their grief over time).
Meanwhile, the saying goes that you don't know what you've lost 'til it's gone - that's never been my experience. My experience is that you don't necessarily know what you've got until you acknowledge what other things are gone - that other possibilities that have fallen away. For me, sadness has been the great stock-taking; it shows you both what you've lost and everything you have left.
Whenever I have lost loved ones, I am reminded of how generally very lucky I've been with the people in my life, how lucky I am with those still living, and all the gifts my loved ones give me. Every time I grieve for my health – or the slightly better health I was enjoying a short while ago – I become only more acutely aware of the people and things that make life pleasurable even when I'm stuck in bed all day and asleep for most of it.
This was not always the case, because for many years, I tried to avoid this sadness. If I ever cried about my health, I would cry in fear and guilt; I blamed myself and felt that if things carried on in this direction, I wouldn't be able cope and I would be an even greater burden on the rest of the world. Part of this was because I believed I was useless and worse health always meant a greater degree of uselessness. In my first marriage, my worst health meant an escalation of abuse. But part of this was because I never allowed myself to actually think about what I had lost within that panicked grappling around for answers.
I've been especially conscious of this during the last several months when I have been having a long crappy patch. I'm having to give up my editing work at The F Word. I've achieved very little work of any kind. Small fun projects and social engagements have fallen away. A painless complication caused a bit of a cancer scare - only a bit of one, I was fairly sure I didn't have cancer – which took a lot of energy to get checked out and put me in something of a morbid state of mind for a few days here and there. I got sad.
However, when September arrived and I began to think about the autumn, I was looking forward to the months ahead. And to be honest, for most of the time I've been ill, I would have been in a complete panic. I would be thinking about the theatre tickets I have for the middle of October* and despairing that I might not be able to go, and it will be a huge waste of money and a grave disappointment to myself and other people. I would probably, even this early, start to worry about Christmas – whether I could be better by then, or whether my ill health would mess things up for other people. I would be panicking about the last four months of the year and how little I had achieved this year so far, and how another year would pass without meeting X, Y or Z objective.
And of course my life is much better now than it has ever been, so there are lots of reasons why I can entertain the idea that I may spend a big chunk of the next few months in bed without feeling desperate. But part of it is that I let myself get sad. I never used to do that. I have let myself cry over things I have had to give up. I have let myself cry over the uncertainty. Then I've thought about those things in my life more reliable than my health and felt extremely grateful.
This is not a “So really bad things are good things in disguise” argument; there are obvious tangible ways my life would improve if my health did (and if nobody I cared about ever suffered or died – is this so much to ask?). All I'm saying is that the things that help us cope with sadness are not present until that sadness is felt. I have perhaps been lucky in my life not to be struck with any spectacular tragedy, but in my experience, fear and guilt are a lot more difficult to negotiate than sadness.
I'm getting repetitive with sentiments along the lines of "our culture is pretty messed up about this emotion" - and of course, in a way, this is inevitable. Simplifying the breadth of human experience into particular and thus limiting narratives is kind of what culture does.
Modern philosophies are particularly bad with sadness. There's a whole world of books and seminars dedicated to positive thinking which involves eliminating negative thoughts - or even a bodged-up version of Buddhism which places the responsibility for all unhappy feelings at the feet of those who feel them. Even some versions of Christianity - historically sometimes too accepting of sadness and suffering - now demand that followers face every negative event with a smile because it's all God's plan and those who lament their experiences somehow lack faith.
Disabled people find ourselves in a double bind with this sort of thing. We are expected to be sad people, perhaps especially people with chronic illness who have lost a non-disabled life and who have debilitating and sometimes demoralising symptoms. Many disabled people actively resist that; to be sad is to give in to the problem – to give in to the stereotype. Many many disabled people are encouraged instead to stay in earlier stages of the grieving process; to stay in denial and pretend that things will improve at any moment, to dedicate one's time and energy to regimes and therapies which promise to bring about recovery, to not “give up”, to get angry and stay angry in order to “battle” illness. In other words, we are pressured to live up to another stereotype.
Stigma is also a problem. Some people with physical chronic illness who've been through dismissal and misdiagnosis live in fear of being perceived as even slightly depressed. And many politicised disabled people don't want to be seen as being sad about things they know to be morally neutral facts of their experience - facts for which are automatically met with pity and unwanted sympathy from strangers. It can feel like being sad – or certainly expressing sadness - about our impairments is somehow letting the side down.
On the other hand, sadness is often portrayed as a romantic or heroic characteristic, something which leads a brooding genius to stare out the window, a single tear staining his cheek. We're pretty uncomfortable about depression as a chronic messy illness, but there is a significant element of our culture which regards sad people as deeper thinkers, more sensitive and empathetic - so long as we don't see them crying in public or wandering the streets in dirty clothes.
And often, people with some kinds of chronic illness feel obliged to, to some extent, perform their role as an unfortunate ill person. Not necessarily for sympathy (although perhaps sometimes, for a good cause – you never see anyone raising Awareness in newspapers and magazines with a smile on their face). But more often, I think this performance is simply for peace – fed up of hearing that they don't look or seem sick, or of newspaper stories about benefit fraud whose headlines amount to Disabled person seen having a good time, there's a temptation to show the world that you're suffering.
I know some people are really afraid of their lives looking too good; too comfortable, too happy. And this is also about our unequal society in a more general way; marginalised people of all stripes who seem to be having a good life are those who most offend bigots – as Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie says, "There are people who dislike you because you do not dislike yourself.”
Happy disabled people are, after all, the least deserving of pity and for some people, our only purpose is as objects of pity to make non-disabled folk feel good about themselves. Unhappy disabled people are far less provocative (at least if their unhappiness is relatively quiet and passive).
All this risks undermining authentic psychological reactions to the losses we experience through chronic illness. We are stuck between a tragic rock and a plucky hard place.
It's not that we shouldn't feel sad (or angry, grateful, defiant, whatever) – but that we should give ourselves emotional space to feel whatever we happen to feel. We should reject both tragedy and the triumph over it as personal narratives.
Because I feel sadness is largely something we must ride out rather than something we need to work through, here are some tips for managing sadness - not for curing it, or moving on from it, but managing sadness rather as you might care for a physical wound:
Attend to your physical comfort.
Make sure your diet is as pleasant and nutritious as possible, that you are keeping warm (or adequately cool during those few days of the year when it's a bit too hot), are wearing attractive comfortable clothes and are spending your time in as comfortable a position as you can manage. If possible, work out some appropriate physical exercise and keep to it. When possible, get a little sunshine and fresh air. Don't fight the temptation to sleep unless you have a good reason to. If you have one available, have an attractive person rub lotion into your back.
It's really amazing how much physical comfort effects mood; I remember my mood once transforming after I changed my socks when one had a hole in it - I hadn't really noticed the hole, but the world seemed considerably more bearable in its absence (if you donate items to homeless people or refugees, priorities good strong socks).
Do not try to avoid negative thoughts or universal sadness triggers.
You can't avoid negative thoughts. You can promote positive ones. You can talk about your negative thoughts and get a better perspective on them. Just writing down your negative thoughts can help you begin to sort them out. However, even when negative thoughts are irrational and unhelpful (which, you know, they aren't always), they can't simply be willed away, or drowned out with loud cheerful music.
Folk sensibly attempt to control their exposure to material which upsets them, but this is only possible for fairly specific material - like avoiding graphic depictions of a particular kind of violence or checking whether thedog dies. Trying to avoid things – thoughts, stories, conversations, news etc. - which are sad is not only a futile and miserable exercise, but also a recipe for anxiety. Even if you're not feeling sad or reading about something sad, something may come up at any moment to change that. So you're left feeling on guard and unable to fully engage in anything new or potentially interesting.
I find it helpful to consider passive activity like the music playlists I put together. A good all-round playlist has a combination of fast and slow tracks, upbeat and sadder songs. If you're reading, watching TV or whatever, then sad content will come up even in comedies and children's shows (especially children's movies - goodness me!), and that's okay so long as it's part of a mix. Material which is interesting, where you're learning stuff, or which allows you to have a conversation with other people (now or later) is also very good.
Express your sadness.
When someone you love died last month or even five years ago today, it is entirely socially acceptable (if not always easy) to talk about your sadness. With chronic illness, when sadness effects us can be fairly random – or at least random to other people who don't see whatever events have triggered the spell. However, I strongly recommend trying to tell someone, just so this thing can be heard and acknowledged. Failing talking to a friend, write about it, compose a song, draw a sad picture to get it down in some form. It is when sadness is not expressed that it is most likely to fester and mutate into something else; something bigger and messier. Not just a fresh depression, which is a risk, but also common or garden bitterness and resentment.
Look forward to small events which will happen.
It's probably an instinctive habit for people with chronic illness to look forward to the next meal, the next episode of a television programme or the next chapter of a book, but it is sometimes necessary to do this consciously. When you feel sad about the way your life is, it can feel pathetic to get excited about the small stuff, but the small stuff really is amazing. We live in an amazing world. That's not a reason not to be sad - terrible things happen in this amazing world of ours - but it is a reason to value all the joy we have available to us today. The sun will rise in the morning and the flowers will bloom in the spring. If possible, plant some bulbs.
Keep a record of your gratitude and pride.
This is hard but helps me a lot when I'm struggling at all. Get a notebook or allocate a text file and towards the end of each day, write down something you're grateful for and something you're proud of. It doesn't have to be anything amazing - you might be grateful for having a nice warm pair of socks and proud that you wrote out a birthday card. If you have more things to feel grateful for or proud of, write them all down. This does not cure sadness or any other negative emotion, but it allows you to focus, regularly, on good things you have in your life and good things you have in yourself.
* At the point of publishing, having pretty much resigned myself to abandoning the theatre trip, it looks like it might actually happen. Hooray!